We have previously shown the presence of immunoreactive angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] in rat ovary homogenate and its stimulatory effect on estradiol and progesterone production in vitro. In the current study, we investigated the presence and cellular distribution of Ang-(1-7) and the Mas receptor, the expression of Mas and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) messenger RNA (mRNA), and the enzymatic activity in the rat ovary following gonadotropin stimulation in vivo. Immature female Wistar rats (25 days old) were injected subcutaneously (SC) with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG, 20 IU in 0.2 mL) or vehicle 48 hours before euthanasia. Tissue distributions of Ang-(1-7), Mas receptor, and ACE2 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, along with angiotensin II (Ang II) localization, while the mRNA expression levels of Mas receptor and ACE2 were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, we determined the activity of neutral endopeptidase (NEP), prolyl endopeptidase (PEP), and ACE by fluorometric assays. After eCG treatment, we found strong immunoreactivity for Ang-(1-7) and Mas primarily in the theca-interstitial cells, while Ang II appeared in the granulosa but not in the thecal layer. Equine chorionic gonadotropin treatment increased Mas and ACE2 mRNA expression compared with control animals (3.3- and 2.1-fold increase, respectively; P < .05). Angiotensin-converting enzyme and NEP activities were lower, while PEP activity was higher in the eCG-treated rats (P < .05). These data show gonadotropin-induced changes in the ovarian expression of Ang-(1-7), Mas receptor, and ACE2. These findings suggest that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) branch formed by ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas, fully expressed in the rat ovary and regulated by gonadotropic hormones, could play a role in the ovarian physiology.