Variations of cervical vertebrae after expression of a Hox-1.1 transgene in mice

Cell. 1990 Apr 20;61(2):301-8. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(90)90810-2.


To understand the function of murine homeobox genes, a genetic analysis is mandatory. We generated gain-of-function mutants by introducing genomic sequences of the Hox-1.1 gene under the control of a chicken beta-actin promoter into mice. Our previous data had shown that these transgenic mice are nonviable after birth and are born with craniofacial abnormalities. In a subsequent detailed analysis of severely affected animals, malformations of the basioccipital bone, the atlas, and the axis were observed. Manifestation of an additional vertebra, a proatlas, occurred at the craniocervical transition. The dominant interference of the Hox-1.1 transgene with developmental programs seems to occur around day 9 of gestation, the time of neural crest migration and somite differentiation. We discuss the resulting phenotype with respect to a developmental control function of Hox-1.1.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Cervical Vertebrae / abnormalities*
  • Cervical Vertebrae / anatomy & histology
  • Cervical Vertebrae / pathology
  • Genes, Homeobox*
  • Genetic Vectors
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Phenotype