DNA barcoding of commercially important salmon and trout species (Oncorhynchus and Salmo) from North America

J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Sep 23;57(18):8379-85. doi: 10.1021/jf901618z.


The present study investigated the ability of DNA barcoding to reliably identify the seven commercially important salmon and trout species (genera Oncorhynchus and Salmo ) in North America. More than 1000 salmonid reference samples were collected from a wide geographic range. DNA extracts from these samples were sequenced for the standard 650 bp barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). DNA barcodes showed low intraspecies divergences (mean, 0.26%; range, 0.04-1.09%), and the mean congeneric divergence was 32-fold greater, at 8.22% (range, 3.42-12.67%). The minimum interspecies divergence was always greater than the maximum intraspecies divergence, indicating that these species can be reliably differentiated using DNA barcodes. Furthermore, several shorter barcode regions (109-218 bp), termed "mini-barcodes", were identified in silico that can differentiate all eight species, providing a potential means for species identification in heavily processed products.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • DNA / analysis*
  • DNA, Mitochondrial / analysis
  • Electronic Data Processing
  • Fish Products / classification*
  • Food Contamination / prevention & control
  • North America
  • Oncorhynchus / classification*
  • Oncorhynchus / genetics*
  • Trout / classification*
  • Trout / genetics*


  • DNA, Mitochondrial
  • DNA