It has been recently reported that mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells isolated from the Wharton's Jelly (WJ) of umbilical cords (UC) ameliorate the condition of animals suffering from central nervous system (CNS)-related conditions. However, little is known on the mechanisms that regulate these actions. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to determine how the conditioned media (CM) of a population of mesenchymal progenitors present in the UC WJ, known as human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs), regulate processes such as cell viability, survival, and proliferation of postnatal hippocampal neurons and glial cells. For this purpose primary hippocampal and cortical cultures of neurons and glial cells, respectively, were incubated with CM from HUCPVCs. Results revealed that HUCPVCs CM increase glial cell viability and proliferation. Furthermore, it was observed that glial cell cultures exhibited higher numbers of GFAP-positive cells (astrocytes) and O4-positive cells (oligodendrocytes) when incubated with the CM. Additionally, it was also observed that the growth factors presents in the CM did not induce an increase on the microglial cells number. For hippocampal neurons similar results were obtained, as cultures exposed to HUCPVCs CM disclosed higher numbers of MAP-2-positive cells. Moreover it was also observed that the cell viability and proliferation in this primary hippocampal cell culture system was also higher, when compared to control cultures. From these results it was possible to conclude that HUCPVCs release neuroregulatory factors that have a direct impact on the densities, viability, and proliferation of glial cells and hippocampal primary cultures.