Hepatocellular accumulation of bile acids due to inhibition of the canalicular bile salt export pump (BSEP/ABCB11) is one proposed mechanism of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). Some hepatotoxic compounds also are potent inhibitors of bile acid uptake by Na(+)-dependent taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP/SLC10A1). This study used a cassette dosing approach in rat and human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) to determine whether known or suspected hepatotoxic drugs inhibit bile acid transport individually or in combination. [(3)H]-Taurocholate served as the NTCP/BSEP probe substrate. Individually, cyclosporin A and rifampin decreased taurocholate in vitro biliary clearance (Cl(biliary)) and biliary excretion index (BEI) by more than 20% in rat SCH, suggesting that these drugs primarily inhibited canalicular efflux. In contrast, ampicillin, carbenicillin, cloxacillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, carbamazepine, pioglitazone, and troglitazone decreased the in vitro Cl(biliary) by more than 20% with no notable change in BEI, suggesting that these drugs primarily inhibited taurocholate uptake. Cassette dosing (n=2-4 compounds per cassette) in rat SCH yielded similar findings, and results in human SCH were consistent with rat SCH. In summary, cassette dosing in SCH is a useful in vitro approach to identify compounds that inhibit the hepatic uptake and/or excretion of bile acids, which may cause DILI.