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, 106 (34), 14456-9

Long-term Retention of Self-Fertilization in a Fish Clade


Long-term Retention of Self-Fertilization in a Fish Clade

Andrey Tatarenkov et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.


Among vertebrate animals, only the mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) was known to self-fertilize. Here, we use microsatellite analyses to document a high selfing rate (97%) in a related nominal species, Kryptolebias ocellatus, which likewise is androdioecious (populations consist of males and hermaphrodites). In contrast, we find no evidence of self-fertilization in Kryptolebias caudomarginatus (an androdioecious species closely related to the marmoratus-ocellatus clade) or in Kryptolebias brasiliensis (a dioecious outgroup). These findings indicate that the initiation of self-fertilization predated the origin of the marmoratus-ocellatus clade. From mitochondrial DNA sequences and microsatellite data, we document a substantial genetic distance between Kryptolebias marmoratus and K. ocellatus, implying that the selfing capacity has persisted in these fishes for at least several hundred thousand years.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.


Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.
Frequency distributions of single-locus inbreeding coefficients (FIS) in various Kryptolebias populations.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.
Genealogy for 136 individuals of K. marmoratus and 10 individuals of K. ocellatus based on 2,946-bp mtDNA sequences. Each circle, triangle, or rhombus represents an individual. In the K. marmoratus clade, triangles, open circles, and rhombi designate fish from Belize, various locations in Florida, and the Bahamas, respectively. Bootstrap values above 80% are shown. (Inset) Population phenogram for these species based on a cluster analysis of Nei's genetic distances from 31 microsatellite loci.

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