Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been recognized as a primary methodology for the accurate analysis of endogenous steroid hormones in biological samples. This review focuses on the use of LC-MS/MS in clinical laboratories to assist with the diagnosis of diverse groups of endocrine and metabolic diseases. Described analytical methods use on-line and off-line sample preparation and analytical derivatization to enhance analytical sensitivity, specificity, and clinical utility. Advantages of LC-MS/MS as an analytical technique include high specificity, possibility to simultaneously measure multiple analytes, and the ability to assess the specificity of the analysis in every sample. All described analytical methods were extensively validated, utilized in routine diagnostic practice, and were applied in a number of clinical and epidemiological studies, including a study of the steroidogenesis in ovarian follicles.
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