'Nothing Is Permanent but Change'- Antigenic Variation in Persistent Bacterial Pathogens

Cell Microbiol. 2009 Dec;11(12):1697-705. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-5822.2009.01366.x. Epub 2009 Aug 25.

Abstract

Pathogens persist in immunocompetent mammalian hosts using various strategies, including evasion of immune effectors by antigenic variation. Among highly antigenically variant bacteria, gene conversion is used to generate novel expressed variants from otherwise silent donor sequences. Recombination using oligonucleotide segments from multiple donors is a combinatorial mechanism that tremendously expands the variant repertoire, allowing thousands of variants to be generated from a relatively small donor pool. Three bacterial pathogens, each encoded by a small genome (< 1.2 Mb), illustrate this variant generating capacity and its role in persistent infection. Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE diversity is encoded and expressed on a linear plasmid required for persistence and recent experiments have demonstrated that VlsE recombination is necessary for persistence in the immunocompetent host. In contrast, both Treponema pallidum TprK and Anaplasma marginale Msp2 expression sites and donors are chromosomally encoded. Both T. pallidum and A. marginale generate antigenic variants in vivo in individual hosts and studies at the population level reveal marked strain diversity in the variant repertoire that may underlie pathogen strain structure and the capacity for re-infection and heterologous strain superinfection. Here, we review gene conversion in bacterial antigenic variation and discuss the short- and long-term selective pressures that shape the variant repertoire.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigenic Variation*
  • Antigens, Bacterial / immunology*
  • Gene Conversion
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / genetics
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / immunology*
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / pathogenicity
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / immunology*
  • Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / microbiology
  • Humans
  • Virulence

Substances

  • Antigens, Bacterial