MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous short (approximately 22) nucleotide RNAs that regulate gene function by modification of target mRNAs. miRNA-1 (miR-1) and miRNA-206 (miR-206) are highly expressed in skeletal muscle. Due to the tissue-specific nature of miR-1/206 for skeletal muscles, we investigated the role of miR-1/206 in the development of rhabdomyosarcoma. Initially, we demonstrated that miR-1/206 expression was suppressed in rhabdomyosarcomas and found at very low levels in a rhabdomyosarcoma RD cell line. Transient transfection of miR-1/206 into cultured RD cells led to a significant decrease in cell growth and migration. Using bioinformatics, we identified two putative miR-1/206 binding sites within the 3'-untranslated region of the human c-Met mRNA. miR-1/206 was then shown to have activity on mRNA expression by targeting the c-Met 3'-untranslated region. The expression of c-Met protein was shown to be down-regulated by subsequent Western blot analysis. Conversely, up-regulation of c-Met was confirmed in tissue samples of human rhabdomyosarcoma, with its level inversely correlated with miR-1/206 expression. In vivo, miR-1/206-expressing tumor cells showed growth delay in comparison with negative control. Our results demonstrated that miR-1/206 suppressed c-Met expression in rhabdomyosarcoma and could function as a potent tumor suppressor in c-Met-overexpressing tumors. Inhibition of miR-1/206 function could contribute to aberrant cell proliferation and migration, leading to rhabdomyosarcoma development.