Non-polio enteroviruses in acute flaccid paralysis children of India: vital assessment before polio eradication

J Paediatr Child Health. Jul-Aug 2009;45(7-8):409-13. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1754.2009.01529.x. Epub 2009 Jul 20.


Aim: This study is an overview of non-polio enterovirus (NPEV) circulating in North India studied from the perspective of poliomyelitis eradication. Wild polio cases declined because of intensive oral polio vaccine immunization. As we approach global eradication of poliovirus (PV), NPEV causing acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) are equal cause of concern.

Methods: A total of 46 653 AFP samples (World Health Organization) and apparently 1000 healthy contacts living in the same geographical area were studied (2004-2007). Serological identification of NPEV was done using RIVM-specific pools (The Netherlands). Untyped (UT)-NPEVs were sequenced directly from reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using pan-enterovirus (Pan-EV) primer (CDC, Atlanta, GA) targeting highly conserved 5'un-translated regions of the enterovirus.

Results: In this study, 12 513 NPEVs were isolated from the collected stool samples. Seroneutralization had identified 67% of NPEV isolates, whereas 32.6% remained as UT- NPEV. Of the typed NPEVs, Coxsackie-B accounted for 32.3%; followed by echoviruses-11, 12, 13, 7 between 8 and 28%. In sequencing few UT-NPEVs, some were identified also as echovirus-30, 11 and 18 which were probably present in mixtures as they remained UT-NPEV in ENT. Newly classified human enterovirus virus-86 (HEV) (EU079026), HEV-97(EU071767) and HEV-B isolate (EU071768) were isolated in AFP samples.

Conclusions: This study provided definitive information about circulation, prevalence and new emerging NPEV in the polio-endemic region of India, hence they should be considered in AFP surveillance. This would help in adopting and planning new strategies in post-PV eradication era in the country. This is the right time to prepare for the future tasks while we head towards a polio-free region.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Child
  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging / epidemiology
  • Communicable Diseases, Emerging / virology
  • Endemic Diseases
  • Enterovirus B, Human / isolation & purification*
  • Enterovirus Infections / epidemiology
  • Enterovirus Infections / virology*
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Muscle Hypotonia / epidemiology
  • Muscle Hypotonia / virology*
  • Paralysis / epidemiology
  • Paralysis / virology*
  • Poliomyelitis / epidemiology
  • Poliomyelitis / prevention & control*
  • Poliomyelitis / virology
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Population Surveillance / methods
  • Prevalence
  • Sequence Analysis
  • Seroepidemiologic Studies