Drugs and Brugada syndrome patients: review of the literature, recommendations, and an up-to-date website (www.brugadadrugs.org)

Heart Rhythm. 2009 Sep;6(9):1335-41. doi: 10.1016/j.hrthm.2009.07.002. Epub 2009 Jul 8.


Background: Worldwide, the Brugada syndrome has been recognized as an important cause of sudden cardiac death in individuals at a relatively young age. Importantly, many drugs have been reported to induce the characteristic Brugada syndrome-linked ECG abnormalities and/or (fatal) ventricular tachyarrhythmias.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to review the literature on the use of drugs in Brugada syndrome patients, to make recommendations based on the literature and on expert opinion regarding drug safety, and to ensure worldwide online and up-to-date availability of this information to all physicians who treat Brugada syndrome patients.

Methods: We performed an extensive review of the literature, formed an international expert panel to produce a consensus recommendation to each drug, and initiated a website (www.brugadadrugs.org).

Results: The literature search yielded 506 reports for consideration. Drugs were categorized into one of four categories: (1) drugs to be avoided (n = 18); (2) drugs preferably avoided (n = 23); (3) antiarrhythmic drugs (n = 4); and (4) diagnostic drugs (n = 4). Level of evidence for most associations was C (only consensus opinion of experts, case studies, or standard-of-care) as there are no randomized studies and few nonrandomized studies in Brugada syndrome patients.

Conclusion: Many drugs have been associated with adverse events in Brugada syndrome patients. We have initiated a website (www.brugadadrugs.org) to ensure worldwide availability of information on safe drug use in Brugada syndrome patients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anesthetics / adverse effects*
  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents / adverse effects*
  • Brugada Syndrome / chemically induced*
  • Brugada Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Brugada Syndrome / drug therapy
  • Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions*
  • Humans
  • Internet*
  • Psychotropic Drugs / adverse effects*
  • Risk Factors


  • Anesthetics
  • Anti-Arrhythmia Agents
  • Psychotropic Drugs