Flowering time control and applications in plant breeding

Trends Plant Sci. 2009 Oct;14(10):563-73. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2009.07.005. Epub 2009 Aug 27.


Shifting the seasonal timing of reproduction is a major goal of plant breeding efforts to produce novel varieties that are better adapted to local environments and changing climatic conditions. The key regulators of floral transition have been studied extensively in model species, and in recent years a growing number of related genes have been identified in crop species, with some notable exceptions. These sequences and variants thereof, as well as several major genes which were only identified in crop species, can now be used by breeders as molecular markers and for targeted genetic modification of flowering time. This article reviews the major floral regulatory pathways and discusses current and novel strategies for altering bolting and flowering behavior in crop plants.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Breeding / methods*
  • Flowers / metabolism
  • Flowers / physiology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant / physiology
  • Photoperiod
  • Plant Development*
  • Plant Physiological Phenomena
  • Plants / metabolism*
  • Time Factors