Low occurrence of Clostridium difficile in retail ground meat in Sweden

J Food Prot. 2009 Aug;72(8):1732-4. doi: 10.4315/0362-028x-72.8.1732.


This pilot study was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of Clostridium difficile in samples of ground meat in Sweden. From April to September 2008, 82 meat samples were collected from randomly selected retail shops in Uppsala County (central Sweden). C. difficile was isolated from 2 (2.4%; both ground beef) of the 82 meat samples. No C. difficile was detected in pork, hamburger, sheep, poultry, or other type of meat samples. The two C. difficile isolates produced both toxin A and toxin B. These findings indicate that C. difficile might be present in ground meat samples in Sweden. However, further studies are necessary to confirm these preliminary data and to elucidate the public health significance of meat contamination by C. difficile in Sweden.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism*
  • Bacterial Toxins / metabolism*
  • Clostridium difficile / growth & development
  • Clostridium difficile / isolation & purification*
  • Clostridium difficile / metabolism
  • Colony Count, Microbial
  • Consumer Product Safety
  • Enterotoxins / metabolism*
  • Food Contamination / analysis*
  • Food Microbiology
  • Humans
  • Meat Products / microbiology*
  • Pilot Projects
  • Risk Assessment
  • Sweden


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Bacterial Toxins
  • Enterotoxins
  • tcdA protein, Clostridium difficile
  • toxB protein, Clostridium difficile