Association among menopause, hormone replacement therapy, and periodontal attachment loss in southern Brazilian women

J Periodontol. 2009 Sep;80(9):1380-7. doi: 10.1902/jop.2009.090082.


Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association among menopause, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and periodontal attachment loss (PAL).

Methods: Three hundred twenty-eight women (40 to 69 years old) who participated in a previous oral survey in South Brazil were included. Women who reported not having their monthly menstrual cycles for >or=12 months were classified as postmenopausal. Postmenopausal women were categorized according to HRT. Women with >or=30% teeth with PAL >or=5 mm were classified as having periodontitis. The data were analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression model and adjusted for age, smoking, socioeconomic status, and dental care.

Results: The prevalence of periodontitis was significantly greater among postmenopausal women not using HRT (HRT-) than among premenopausal women (64.4% versus 46.3%; P = 0.005). Similarly, the multivariable analysis demonstrated a significantly higher chance of having periodontitis in postmenopausal HRT- women than in premenopausal women (odds ratio [OR], 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1 to 4.0). In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the prevalence of periodontitis between postmenopausal women using HRT (HRT+) and premenopausal women (48.8% versus 46.3%; P = 0.77). After adjusting for cofactors, postmenopausal HRT+ women did not have a greater likelihood of having periodontitis than premenopausal women (OR, 1.2; 95% CI: 0.6 to 2.5). No significant differences in tooth loss were observed among the study groups after adjusting for confounders.

Conclusions: Postmenopausal HRT- women had a greater chance of having periodontitis than premenopausal women. In contrast, postmenopausal HRT+ women and premenopausal women had similar periodontal status. HRT may have a beneficial effect on periodontal health.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Brazil
  • Dental Care
  • Estrogen Replacement Therapy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Menopause / physiology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Periodontal Attachment Loss / etiology*
  • Periodontitis / etiology
  • Postmenopause / drug effects
  • Postmenopause / physiology
  • Premenopause / physiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking
  • Social Class
  • Tooth Loss / etiology