MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression and have a critical role in many biologic and pathologic processes. We hypothesized that miRNA expression profiles in injured brain (hippocampus) would show common as well as unique profiles when compared with those of blood. Adult, untouched, control rats were compared with rats with sham surgeries, ischemic strokes, brain hemorrhage (lysed blood, fresh blood, or thrombin), and kainate-induced seizures. Brain and whole-blood miRNA expression profiles were assessed 24 h later using TaqMan rodent miRNA arrays. MicroRNA response profiles were different for each condition. Many miRNAs changed more than 1.5-fold in brain and blood after each experimental manipulation, and several miRNAs were upregulated or downregulated in both brain and blood after a given injury. A few miRNAs (e.g., miR-298, miR-155, and miR-362-3p) were upregulated or downregulated more than twofold in both brain and blood after several different injuries. The results show the possible use of blood miRNAs as biomarkers for brain injury; that selected blood miRNAs may correlate with miRNA changes in the brain; and that many of the mRNAs, previously shown to be regulated in brain and blood after brain injury, are likely accounted for by changes in miRNA expression.