Objective: This study was conducted to review the etiological factors and diseases associated with pediatric noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis in a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia.
Materials and methods: A retrospective review of all patients with confirmed noncystic fibrosis (Non-CF) bronchiectasis by chest X-ray and/or CT chest in a pulmonary clinic during the period 1993-2005 at a tertiary care center in Riyadh.
Results: A total of 151 cases were diagnosed as Non-CF bronchiectasis. Seventy-five (49.7%) were male, 76 (50.3%) were female; 148 (98%) are alive and 3 (2%) died. The southwestern regions constituted 72 (50%) of the cases. There was a period of (5 +/- 3.2) years between the start of symptoms and diagnosis of bronchiectasis. More than two-thirds of the patients had cough, tachypnea, wheezing, sputum production and failure to thrive. Ninety-one (60%) had associated diseases: Pulmonary diseases in 48 (32%), immunodeficiency in 27 (18%), central nervous system anomalies in 10 (7%), cardiac in 10 (7%) and asthma in 103 (68%) of the patients. Left lower lobe was commonly involved in 114 (76%) patients. Sixty-eight (67%) were found to have sinusitis. More than two-thirds of patients had two or more associated diseases. Forty-nine (32%) developed gastroesophageal reflux. Hemophilus influenza was cultured in 56 (37%), strep pneumoniae in 25 (17%) and pseudomonas aeruginosa in 24 (16%) of the patients. Eighty percent of the patients who had pulmonary function test had abnormal changes. Disease progression was related to development of symptoms before 5 years of age, persistent atelectasis and right lower lobe involvement (P< 0.05).
Conclusion: Non-CF bronchiectasis should be included in the differential diagnosis of recurrent chest infection in Saudi Arabia. Early diagnosis and identification of associated diseases is needed to prevent progression of the disease.
Keywords: Bronchiectasis; chest infection; developing countries.