Oocyte developmental competence is progressively obtained during pubertal development in females. Poor developmental potential in oocytes derived from prepubertal females suggests that essential processes required for oocyte development have not been fulfilled. The objective of this experiment was to analyze the protein profiles of porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) derived from cyclic and prepubertal females to identify alterations in protein abundance that correlate with developmental potential. COC complexes, aspirated from prepubertal and cyclic ovaries, were pooled into three replicates of 400 COCs each per treatment in approximately 100 microl SOF-HEPES medium. Protein samples were extracted and analyzed by two-dimensional differential in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). Over 1,600 proteins were resolved on each of the three replicate gels. Sixteen protein spots were identified by mass spectrometry, representing 14 unique, differentially expressed proteins (volume ratio greater than 1.3). Glutathione-S-transferase and pyruvate kinase 3 were more abundant in COCs derived from cyclic females, whereas soluble epoxide hydrolase and transferrin were more abundant in prepubertal derived COCs. Abundance of several glycolytic enzymes (enolase 1, pyruvate kinase 3, and phosphoglycerate kinase) was increased in COCs derived from cyclic females, suggesting glucose metabolism is decreased in prepubertal derived COCs. We conclude that the abundance of proteins involved in metabolism and oxidative stress regulation is significantly altered in prepubertal derived COCs and may play a role in the mechanisms resulting in developmental competence.