Identifiability, exchangeability and confounding revisited

Epidemiol Perspect Innov. 2009 Sep 4;6:4. doi: 10.1186/1742-5573-6-4.


In 1986 the International Journal of Epidemiology published "Identifiability, Exchangeability and Epidemiological Confounding". We review the article from the perspective of a quarter century after it was first drafted and relate it to subsequent developments on confounding, ignorability, and collapsibility.