Purpose: To investigate impact of distribution of computed tomography (CT) emphysema on severity of airflow limitation and gas exchange impairment in current and former heavy smokers participating in a lung cancer screening trial.
Materials and methods: In total 875 current and former heavy smokers underwent baseline low-dose CT (30 mAs) in our center and spirometry and diffusion capacity testing on the same day as part of the Dutch-Belgian Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NELSON). Emphysema was quantified for 872 subjects as the number of voxels with an apparent lowered X-ray attenuation coefficient. Voxels attenuated <-950 HU were categorized as representing severe emphysema (ES950), while voxels attenuated between -910 HU and -950 HU represented moderate emphysema (ES910). Impact of distribution on severity of pulmonary function impairment was investigated with logistic regression, adjusted for total amount of emphysema.
Results: For ES910 an apical distribution was associated with more airflow obstruction and gas exchange impairment than a basal distribution (both p<0.01). The FEV(1)/FVC ratio was 1.6% (95% CI 0.42% to 2.8%) lower for apical predominance than for basal predominance, for Tlco/V(A) the difference was 0.12% (95% CI 0.076-0.15%). Distribution of ES950 had no impact on FEV(1)/FVC ratio, while an apical distribution was associated with a 0.076% (95% CI 0.038-0.11%) lower Tlco/V(A) (p<0.001).
Conclusion: In a heavy smoking population, an apical distribution is associated with more severe gas exchange impairment than a basal distribution; for moderate emphysema it is also associated with a lower FEV(1)/FVC ratio. However, differences are small, and likely clinically irrelevant.
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