Cold shock-induced norepinephrine triggers apoptosis of haemocytes via caspase-3 in the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2009 Dec;27(6):695-700. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2009.08.010. Epub 2009 Sep 6.

Abstract

The total haemocyte count (THC), haemolymph norepinephrine (NE) level, caspase-3 mRNA expression and activity levels, and apoptotic haemocyte rate were measured when shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (20-25 g) were transferred from 28 to 22 degrees C after 0, 2, and 7 days, and the caspase-3 mRNA expression and activity levels and the apoptotic cell rate of haemocytes, in vitro, were determined after incubation with 2 x 10(-8) M NE for 0, 30, 60, and 120 min at 27 +/- 1.0 degrees C. For shrimp transferred from 28 +/- 1.0 to 22 +/- 0.5 degrees C after 2 and 7 days, the THC decreased by 17.9% and 18.0%, but the NE concentration, caspase-3 transcription and activity levels, and apoptotic cell rate increased by 62.5% and 37.3%, 5100.0% and 446.6%, 148.6% and 152.0%, and 88.7% and 200.1%, respectively, compared to those of shrimp held at 28 +/- 0.5 degrees C which served as the control. Similar tendencies were observed for the apoptotic cell rate, and caspase-3 transcription and activity levels of haemocytes exposed to 2 x 10(-8) M NE in vitro. These results suggest that NE plays an important role in the apoptosis of haemocytes in L. vannamei under hypothermal stress, which causes depressive effects on immunological responses.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Apoptosis / immunology*
  • Caspase 3 / genetics
  • Caspase 3 / immunology*
  • Cell Count / veterinary
  • Cold Temperature / adverse effects*
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Hemocytes / immunology*
  • Norepinephrine / analysis
  • Norepinephrine / immunology*
  • Penaeidae / cytology
  • Penaeidae / enzymology
  • Penaeidae / immunology*
  • RNA, Messenger / chemistry
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Transcription, Genetic / immunology

Substances

  • RNA, Messenger
  • Caspase 3
  • Norepinephrine