Purpose: Saposin C is a multifunctional protein known to activate lysosomal enzymes and induce membrane fusion in an acidic environment. Excessive accumulation of lipid-coupled saposin C in lysosomes is cytotoxic. Because neoplasms generate an acidic microenvironment, caused by leakage of lysosomal enzymes and hypoxia, we hypothesized that saposin C may be an effective anticancer agent. We investigated the antitumor efficacy and systemic biodistribution of nanovesicles comprised of saposin C coupled with dioleoylphosphatidylserine in preclinical cancer models.
Experimental design: Neuroblastoma, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and, breast cancer cells were treated with saposin C-dioleoylphosphatidylserine nanovesicles and assessed for cell viability, ceramide elevation, caspase activation, and apoptosis. Fluorescently labeled saposin C-dioleoylphosphatidylserine was i.v. injected to determine in vivo tumor-targeting specificity. Antitumor activity and toxicity profile of saposin C-dioleoylphosphatidylserine were evaluated in xenograft models.
Results: Saposin C-dioleoylphosphatidylserine nanovesicles, with a mean diameter of approximately 190 nm, showed specific tumor-targeting activity shown through in vivo imaging. Following i.v. administration, saposin C-dioleoylphosphatidylserine nanovesicles preferentially accumulated in tumor vessels and cells in tumor-bearing mice. Saposin C-dioleoylphosphatidylserine induced apoptosis in multiple cancer cell types while sparing normal cells and tissues. The mechanism of saposin C-dioleoylphosphatidylserine induction of apoptosis was determined to be in part through elevation of intracellular ceramides, followed by caspase activation. In in vivo models, saposin C-dioleoylphosphatidylserine nanovesicles significantly inhibited growth of preclinical xenografts of neuroblastoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor. I.v. dosing of saposin C-dioleoylphosphatidylserine showed no toxic effects in nontumor tissues.
Conclusions: Saposin C-dioleoylphosphatidylserine nanovesicles offer promise as a novel, nontoxic, cancer-targeted, antitumor agent for treating a broad range of cancers.