333 consecutive patients with hypopituitarism diagnosed between 1956 and 1987 were retrospectively examined. The patients had been given routine replacement therapy. The overall mortality was higher than in an age and sex matched population. Deaths from vascular disorders were also significantly increased (60 [40 male, 20 female] versus 30.8 expected [23.5, 7.4 female]). The hazard function for vascular death was independent of age at diagnosis, time after diagnosis, calendar year of diagnosis, gender, degree of pituitary insufficiency, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Mortality risk was raised irrespective of whether hypopituitarism was due to pituitary adenoma or secondary to other diseases. 7 patients (3 male, 4 female) died from malignant diseases (expected 10.1 and 4.1, respectively). These observations indicate that life expectancy is shortened in patients with hypopituitarism. Growth-hormone deficiency could be a factor in this increased mortality from cardiovascular disease.