Dietary patterns associated with metabolic syndrome, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in young adults: the Bogalusa Heart Study

Public Health Nutr. 2009 Dec;12(12):2493-503. doi: 10.1017/S1368980009991261. Epub 2009 Sep 11.


Objective: To examine the association between dietary patterns (DP) and risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS); and to identify differences in DP by socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors.

Design: Dietary intake (from an FFQ), anthropometric/biochemical parameters and sociodemographic/lifestyle information (from a self-reported questionnaire) were evaluated, using a cross-sectional design. Statistical methods included principal component factor analysis, analysis of covariance and linear regression. All analyses were covariate-adjusted.

Setting: The Bogalusa Heart Study (1995-1996), USA.

Subjects: Young adults (19-39 years; n 995; 61 % females/39 % males; 80 % whites/20 % blacks) from a semi-rural southern US community were examined.

Results: The 'Western Dietary Pattern' (WDP) consisted of refined grains, French fries, high-fat dairy foods, cheese dishes, red meats, processed meats, eggs, snacks, sweets/desserts, sweetened beverages and condiments. The 'Prudent Dietary Pattern' (PDP) consisted of whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, 100 % fruit juices, low-fat dairy products, poultry, clear soups and low-fat salad dressings. The DP explained 31 % of the dietary intake variance. Waist circumference (P = 0.02), triceps skinfold (P = 0.01), plasma insulin (P = 0.03), serum TAG (P = 0.05), and the occurrence of MetS (P = 0.03) were all inversely associated with PDP. Insulin sensitivity (P < 0.0005) was positively associated with PDP. Serum HDL cholesterol (P = 0.05) was inversely associated with WDP. Blacks consumed more servings from WDP than whites (P = 0.02). Females consumed more servings from PDP than males (P = 0.002). Those with >12 years of education consumed more servings from PDP than their counterparts (P < 0.0001). Current smokers consumed more servings from WDP than current non-smokers (P < 0.0001). Physically very active young adults consumed fewer servings from WDP than their sedentary counterparts (P = 0.02).

Conclusions: More studies are warranted to confirm these findings in other populations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • African Americans / statistics & numerical data*
  • Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Demography
  • Diet / statistics & numerical data*
  • Diet / trends
  • Diet Surveys
  • European Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data*
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Life Style*
  • Linear Models
  • Louisiana / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / etiology
  • Principal Component Analysis
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult