Objective: To examine the association between dietary patterns (DP) and risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS); and to identify differences in DP by socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors.
Design: Dietary intake (from an FFQ), anthropometric/biochemical parameters and sociodemographic/lifestyle information (from a self-reported questionnaire) were evaluated, using a cross-sectional design. Statistical methods included principal component factor analysis, analysis of covariance and linear regression. All analyses were covariate-adjusted.
Setting: The Bogalusa Heart Study (1995-1996), USA.
Subjects: Young adults (19-39 years; n 995; 61 % females/39 % males; 80 % whites/20 % blacks) from a semi-rural southern US community were examined.
Results: The 'Western Dietary Pattern' (WDP) consisted of refined grains, French fries, high-fat dairy foods, cheese dishes, red meats, processed meats, eggs, snacks, sweets/desserts, sweetened beverages and condiments. The 'Prudent Dietary Pattern' (PDP) consisted of whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, 100 % fruit juices, low-fat dairy products, poultry, clear soups and low-fat salad dressings. The DP explained 31 % of the dietary intake variance. Waist circumference (P = 0.02), triceps skinfold (P = 0.01), plasma insulin (P = 0.03), serum TAG (P = 0.05), and the occurrence of MetS (P = 0.03) were all inversely associated with PDP. Insulin sensitivity (P < 0.0005) was positively associated with PDP. Serum HDL cholesterol (P = 0.05) was inversely associated with WDP. Blacks consumed more servings from WDP than whites (P = 0.02). Females consumed more servings from PDP than males (P = 0.002). Those with >12 years of education consumed more servings from PDP than their counterparts (P < 0.0001). Current smokers consumed more servings from WDP than current non-smokers (P < 0.0001). Physically very active young adults consumed fewer servings from WDP than their sedentary counterparts (P = 0.02).
Conclusions: More studies are warranted to confirm these findings in other populations.