A major challenge facing the nephrology community in the United States is the training of adequate numbers of nephrologists to meet patient care and research needs. There is particular cause for concern because of the increasing incidence and prevalence of patients with chronic kidney disease. Data on the clinical and research nephrology workforce are incomplete or absent. However, the number of such individuals likely is inadequate to meet current and projected needs. To solve these workforce shortages, significant issues with regard to clinical and research training need to be addressed. These include funding of fellowship training, increasing the pipeline of medical students and internal medicine residents, and enhancing interest in nephrology among international and particularly US medical graduates. This review discusses these challenges facing the renal community, with emphasis on the care, prevention, and treatment of chronic kidney disease, and identifies potential pathways to developing solutions.