Ameloblastic fibroma (AF) is a rare odontogenic tumour of the jaw which usually occurs in the first 2 decades of life. The common clinical manifestation is a slow-growing swelling. We report a case of a 16-year-old male patient presenting with extensive AF of the mandible. He underwent a conservative enucleation. The tumour recurred 2 years after the initial surgery, requiring the second enucleation. The patient has continued to be followed closely and has been disease-free for 4 years. Recent evidence suggests that the recurrent rate of AF is relatively high, and malignant transformation of AF may occur after recurrences or multiple surgeries. A conservative treatment approach with close surveillance is recommended. Anatomical limitations should be taken into account, especially when enucleation of AF in the posterior portion of the jaw is performed. Current surgical pathologic issues of the tumour are also discussed.
Keywords: Ameloblastic fibroma; Jaw tumour; Odontogenic tumour.