Evaluation of the toxicity of onyx compared with n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate in the subarachnoid space of a rabbit model: an experimental research

Neuroradiology. 2010 Feb;52(2):125-34. doi: 10.1007/s00234-009-0594-8. Epub 2009 Sep 15.


Introduction: The toxic effects of onyx, its solvent dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), and n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) were evaluated after infusion into the subaracnoid space of a rabbit model.

Methods: Each of the two various concentrations of onyx, pure DMSO, NBCA, and normal saline solution were percutaneously infused into the pontocerebellar cisternae of 39 domestic male albino rabbits, after which, the brain stems and medial cerebellar tissues were harvested for biochemical and histopathological studies.

Results: The specimens infused in various concentration of onyx, DMSO, and NBCA showed neural tissue necrosis and edema with inflammatory cell infitration in the acute stage. Although the mean values of the lipid peroxidase in the control, saline, and NBCA groups were found to be almost similar, they were found to be low in the onyx and DMSO groups.

Conclusion: This experimental study suggests that NBCA, and various concentrations of onyx and DMSO have toxic effects on the neural tissues of rabbits when infused into the subarachnoid space.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain / drug effects*
  • Brain / pathology
  • Brain Edema / chemically induced
  • Brain Edema / pathology
  • Dimethyl Sulfoxide / administration & dosage
  • Dimethyl Sulfoxide / toxicity*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Enbucrilate / administration & dosage
  • Enbucrilate / toxicity*
  • Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects
  • Male
  • Necrosis / chemically induced
  • Necrosis / pathology
  • Neurotoxins / toxicity*
  • Polyvinyls / administration & dosage
  • Polyvinyls / toxicity*
  • Rabbits
  • Solvents / administration & dosage
  • Solvents / toxicity*
  • Spinal Cord / drug effects*
  • Spinal Cord / pathology
  • Subarachnoid Space


  • Neurotoxins
  • Onyx copolymer
  • Polyvinyls
  • Solvents
  • Enbucrilate
  • Dimethyl Sulfoxide