Intramyocardial hemorrhage and microvascular obstruction after primary percutaneous coronary intervention

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2010 Jan;26(1):49-55. doi: 10.1007/s10554-009-9499-1. Epub 2009 Sep 15.


Reperfusion may cause intramyocardial hemorrhage (IMH) by extravasation of erythrocytes through severely damaged endothelial walls. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the clinical significance of IMH in relation to infarct size, microvascular obstruction (MVO) and function in patients after primary percutaneous intervention. Forty-five patients underwent cardiovascular MR imaging (CMR) 1 week and 4 months after primary stenting for a first acute myocardial infarction. T2-weighted spin-echo imaging (T2W) was used to assess infarct related edema and IMH, and delayed enhancement (DE) was used to assess infarct size and MVO. Cine CMR was used to assess left ventricular volumes and function at baseline and at 4 months follow-up. In 22 (49%) patients, IMH was detected as areas of attenuated signal in the core of the high signal intensity region on T2W images. Patients with IMH had larger infarcts, higher left ventricular volumes and lower ejection fraction. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between hyperintense periphery and the hypo-intense core of the T2W ischemic area correlated to peak CKMB, total infarct size and MVO size. Using univariable analysis, CNR predicted ejection fraction at baseline (beta = -0.62, P = 0.003) and follow-up (beta = -0.84, P < 0.001). However, after multivariable analysis, baseline ejection fraction and presence of MVO were the only parameters that predicted functional changes at follow-up. IMH was found in the majority of patients with MVO after reperfused myocardial infarction. It was closely related to markers of infarct size, MVO and function, but did not have prognostic significance beyond MVO.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary / adverse effects*
  • Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary / instrumentation
  • Edema, Cardiac / etiology
  • Edema, Cardiac / pathology
  • Female
  • Hemorrhage / etiology*
  • Hemorrhage / pathology
  • Hemorrhage / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine
  • Male
  • Microvessels / pathology
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / pathology
  • Myocardial Infarction / physiopathology
  • Myocardial Infarction / therapy*
  • Myocardium / pathology
  • No-Reflow Phenomenon / etiology*
  • No-Reflow Phenomenon / pathology
  • No-Reflow Phenomenon / physiopathology
  • Stents
  • Stroke Volume
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Ventricular Function, Left