Clinical implication of metabolic syndrome on chronic kidney disease depends on gender and menopausal status: results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010 Feb;25(2):469-77. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfp483. Epub 2009 Sep 17.


Background: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been increasing throughout the world over the last decade. Metabolic syndrome (MS) has been known to be an independent risk factor of CKD. However, both renal and metabolic diseases are experienced differently in men and women, and clinical implication of MS on CKD may be different according to gender.

Methods: To understand the association between MS and CKD, we performed a cross-sectional study in non-institutionalized civilians using the data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Of 37 769 participants, 5091 were available for the analysis of the prevalence of CKD (defined as dipstick proteinuria or a reduced GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)).

Results: The prevalence of CKD was 8.9% (7.4% in men, 4.7% in premenopausal women and 20.1% in postmenopausal women) and MS was seen in 26.2% (24.9% in men, 13.9% in premenopausal women and 52% in postmenopausal women). The prevalence of CKD increased with ageing, in particular after sharply after the age of 50 in both genders. MS was a significant determinant of CKD; however, sub-analysis revealed that MS was a risk factor for CKD only in men under the age of 60 and in postmenopausal women. Neither MS per se nor individual components of MS were associated with CKD in men over the age of 60 and in premenopausal women.

Conclusion: Differential effect of MS on CKD according to age and gender in our study may provide a clue to define the subject in need for more attention for the treatment of MS in terms of the development of CKD.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Chronic Disease
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Kidney Diseases / etiology*
  • Male
  • Menopause
  • Metabolic Syndrome / complications*
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Republic of Korea
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • Sex Factors
  • Young Adult