Background: Antimicrobials are often used inappropriately in paediatric wards of medical college hospitals in Bangladesh. Most of the antimicrobials are prescribed based on clinical grounds-signs and symptoms. This intervention study assessed the effectiveness of a training intervention on antimicrobials prescribing by physicians in paediatric wards of tertiary care level hospitals.
Methodology: This study was conducted at medical college hospitals in Bangladesh during the period from 1998 through 2000. The pre-intervention survey of antimicrobial use was conducted during 1998 in five hospitals. The post-intervention survey was conducted after the interactive training during the succeeding year in three of the original five hospitals, of which one was the intervention hospital and two control hospitals. A total of 3,466 admitted paediatric patients' treatment charts (2,171 in the pre-intervention and 1,295 in the post-intervention surveys) were reviewed.
Results: The most commonly used antimicrobials were ampicillin, gentamicin, amoxicillin, cloxacillin and ceftriaxone. Appropriate antimicrobial therapy for the most common infectious diseases, pneumonia and diarrhoea, increased by 16.4% and 56.8% respectively in the intervention hospital compared with the two control hospitals and these improvements were significant (p = < 0.001 and p = 0.002, for pneumonia and diarrhoea respectively).
Conclusions: An interactive, focussed educational intervention, targeted at physicians, appears to have been effective in improving appropriate antimicrobial prescribing for the most common paediatric infectious diseases in a medical college hospital in Bangladesh.