Learning immunology from the yellow fever vaccine: innate immunity to systems vaccinology

Nat Rev Immunol. 2009 Oct;9(10):741-7. doi: 10.1038/nri2629. Epub 2009 Sep 18.


Despite their great success, we understand little about how effective vaccines stimulate protective immune responses. Two recent developments promise to yield such understanding: the appreciation of the crucial role of the innate immune system in sensing microorganisms and tuning immune responses, and advances in systems biology. Here I review how these developments are yielding insights into the mechanism of action of the yellow fever vaccine, one of the most successful vaccines ever developed, and the broader implications for vaccinology.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / virology
  • Gene Expression / genetics
  • Gene Expression / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Active
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Toll-Like Receptors / immunology*
  • Toll-Like Receptors / metabolism
  • Yellow Fever / immunology*
  • Yellow Fever / prevention & control
  • Yellow Fever / therapy
  • Yellow Fever / virology
  • Yellow Fever Vaccine / immunology*
  • Yellow fever virus / immunology


  • Toll-Like Receptors
  • Yellow Fever Vaccine