Alterations in adenylate kinase activity in human PBMCs after in vitro exposure to electromagnetic field: comparison between extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF) and therapeutic application of a musically modulated electromagnetic field (TAMMEF)

J Biomed Biotechnol. 2009;2009:717941. doi: 10.1155/2009/717941. Epub 2009 Sep 16.


This study investigated the effects of electromagnetic fields on enzymes involved in purine metabolism in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Cells were obtained from 20 volunteers. We tested both low-energy, extremely low frequency (ELF; 100-Hz) electromagnetic fields and the Therapeutic Application of Musically Modulated Electromagnetic Fields (TAMMEFs); the latter is characterized by variable frequencies, intensities, and wave shapes. Adenylate kinase activity was increased after ELF field exposure but decreased slightly after TAMMEF exposure. Neither of the two electromagnetic field affected the activities of the purine metabolism enzymes ecto-5'-nucleotidase, adenosine deaminase, and adenosine kinase. We concluded that ELF fields may influence cellular electrical charge stability; stimulation of adenylate kinase activity could restore the cell to a state of equilibrium. In contrast, TAMMEF fields may be useful for maintaining and regulating the cellular electrical charge.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 5'-Nucleotidase / metabolism
  • Adenosine Deaminase / metabolism
  • Adenylate Kinase / metabolism*
  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Electromagnetic Fields*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / enzymology*
  • Leukocytes, Mononuclear / radiation effects*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Music*
  • Purines / metabolism
  • Statistics, Nonparametric


  • Purines
  • Adenylate Kinase
  • 5'-Nucleotidase
  • Adenosine Deaminase