Functional imaging using the retinal function imager: direct imaging of blood velocity, achieving fluorescein angiography-like images without any contrast agent, qualitative oximetry, and functional metabolic signals

Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2009 Jul;53(4):345-51. doi: 10.1007/s10384-009-0689-0. Epub 2009 Sep 8.


The Retinal Function Imager (RFI; Optical Imaging, Rehovot, Israel) is a unique, noninvasive multiparameter functional imaging instrument that directly measures hemodynamic parameters such as retinal blood-flow velocity, oximetric state, and metabolic responses to photic activation. In addition, it allows capillary perfusion mapping without any contrast agent. These parameters of retinal function are degraded by retinal abnormalities. This review delineates the development of these parameters and demonstrates their clinical applicability for noninvasive detection of retinal function in several modalities. The results suggest multiple clinical applications for early diagnosis of retinal diseases and possible critical guidance of their treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Flow Velocity / physiology
  • Contrast Media / administration & dosage
  • Diagnostic Imaging / instrumentation
  • Diagnostic Imaging / methods*
  • Fluorescein Angiography*
  • Humans
  • Oximetry
  • Oxygen / blood*
  • Regional Blood Flow / physiology
  • Retina / physiology*
  • Retinal Vessels / physiology*


  • Contrast Media
  • Oxygen