Redox reactions are known to regulate many important cellular processes. In this review, we focus on the role of redox regulation in DNA repair both in direct regulation of specific DNA repair proteins as well as indirect transcriptional regulation. A key player in the redox regulation of DNA repair is the base excision repair enzyme apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) in its role as a redox factor. APE1 is reduced by the general redox factor thioredoxin, and in turn reduces several important transcription factors that regulate expression of DNA repair proteins. Finally, we consider the potential for chemotherapeutic development through the modulation of APE1's redox activity and its impact on DNA repair.