Mice are prone to kidney pathology after prolonged ketamine addiction

Toxicol Lett. 2009 Dec 15;191(2-3):275-8. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2009.09.006. Epub 2009 Sep 17.


ICR mice were injected with ketamine for 1, 3 and 6 months and the kidneys and urinary bladders were excised and processed for histology. Starting from 1 month, all addicted mice showed invasion of mononuclear white cells, either surrounding the glomerulus or the other tubules in the kidney. The aggregation of these cells extended all the way to the pelvis and ureter. As well, in the urinary bladder, the epithelium became thin and there was submucosal infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells. Silver staining revealed a loss of nerve fibers amongst the muscles of the urinary bladder of the treated. Immunohistochemistry on choline acetyltransferase which is a marker for cholinergic neurons also demonstrated a decrease of those cells. We hypothesized that prolonged ketamine addiction resulted in the animals prone to urinary infection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anesthetics, Dissociative / pharmacokinetics
  • Anesthetics, Dissociative / toxicity*
  • Animals
  • Choline O-Acetyltransferase / metabolism
  • Disease Progression
  • Ketamine / pharmacokinetics
  • Ketamine / toxicity*
  • Kidney / pathology
  • Kidney Diseases / chemically induced*
  • Kidney Diseases / pathology*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Muscle, Smooth / pathology
  • Nerve Fibers / pathology
  • Silver Staining
  • Substance-Related Disorders / pathology*
  • Urinary Bladder / pathology


  • Anesthetics, Dissociative
  • Ketamine
  • Choline O-Acetyltransferase