Background & aims: Information about malignancies that arise in patients after liver transplantation comes from volunteer registry databases and single-center retrospective studies. We analyzed a multicenter, prospectively obtained database to assess the probabilities of and risk factors for de novo malignancies in patients after liver transplantation.
Methods: We analyzed the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases' liver transplantation database of 798 adults who received transplants from April 1990 to June 1994 and long-term follow-up data through January 2003. In this patient population, 171 adult patients developed 271 de novo malignancies. Of these malignancies, 147 were skin-related, 29 were hematologic, and 95 were solid organ cancers; we focused on nonskin malignancies.
Results: The probability of developing any nonskin malignancy was highest in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC; 22% at 10 years) or alcohol-related liver disease (ALD; 18% at 10 years); all other diagnoses had a 10% probability. Multivariate analysis indicated that increased age by decade (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.33, P = .01), a history of smoking (HR = 1.6, P = .046), PSC (HR = 2.5, P = .001), and ALD (HR = 2.1, P = .01) were associated with development of solid malignancies after liver transplantation. The probabilities of death after diagnosis of hematologic and solid malignancy were 44.0% and 38.0% at 1 year and 57.6% and 53.1% at 5 years, respectively.
Conclusions: De novo malignancy primarily affects patients with PSC or ALD, compared to other transplant recipients, with a significant impact on long-term survival.