Many extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase substrates have been identified, but the diversity of ERK-mediated processes suggests the existence of additional targets. Using a phosphoproteomic approach combining the steroid receptor fusion system, IMAC, 2D-DIGE and phosphomotif-specific antibodies, we detected 38 proteins showing reproducible phosphorylation changes between ERK-activated and ERK-inhibited samples, including 24 new candidate ERK targets. ERK directly phosphorylated at least 13 proteins in vitro. Of these, Nup50 was verified as a bona fide ERK substrate. Notably, ERK phosphorylation of the FG repeat region of Nup50 reduced its affinity for importin-beta family proteins, importin-beta and transportin. Other FG nucleoporins showed a similar functional change after ERK-mediated phosphorylation. Nuclear migration of importin-beta and transportin was impaired in ERK-activated, digitonin-permeabilized cells, as a result of ERK phosphorylation of Nup50. Thus, we propose that ERK phosphorylates various nucleoporins to regulate nucleocytoplasmic transport.