Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease

Mov Disord. 2009 Nov 15;24(15):2175-86. doi: 10.1002/mds.22589.


Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in Parkinson's disease, even at the earliest stages, and have important consequences for quality of life and daily functioning, are associated with increased carer burden and increased risk for nursing home admission. In addition to cognitive impairment, a wide range of neuropsychiatric symptoms have been reported. In this article, the epidemiology, clinical course, diagnosis, and management of some of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms in PD are discussed: depression, anxiety, apathy, fatigue, and psychotic symptoms. Although much is known regarding the prevalence and course of these symptoms, the empirical evidence for how to manage these symptoms is limited at best. There is thus an urgent need for systematic studies for the pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of these symptoms.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anxiety / etiology
  • Depression / etiology
  • Fatigue / etiology
  • Humans
  • Mental Disorders / diagnosis
  • Mental Disorders / epidemiology*
  • Mental Disorders / etiology*
  • Neuropsychological Tests
  • Parkinson Disease / complications*
  • Parkinson Disease / epidemiology
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Quality of Life