Alphavirus M1 induces apoptosis of malignant glioma cells via downregulation and nucleolar translocation of p21WAF1/CIP1 protein

Cell Cycle. 2009 Oct 15;8(20):3328-39. doi: 10.4161/cc.8.20.9832. Epub 2009 Oct 17.


Alphavirus, a genus of arthropod-borne togavirus, is well-known for its pro-apoptotic capability. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be further clarified. Here, we have identified that M1, an alphavirus isolated in 1960s, targeted C6 malignant glioma cells for apoptosis. Flow cytometry analysis showed that more cells enter S-phase post M1 infection, and subsequently undergo a classic apoptosis. To elucidate the mechanism of S-phase arrest and its relationship to apoptosis, we tested the expression of several critical cell cycle regulatory proteins and found elevated phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), decreased expression of cyclin A and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Notably, the protein level of p21(WAF1/CIP1) was downregulated earliest and most effectively among all tested changes of cell cycle regulators, though its mRNA level was strongly upregulated. To evaluate the role of p21(WAF1/CIP1) in S-phase accumulation and subsequent apoptosis, we confirmed that exogenous p21(WAF1/CIP1) overexpression or treatment with roscovitine (a selective chemical inhibitor of CDK2) efficiently protected against apoptosis with a reduced S-phase accumulation. Thus, it is indicated that the downregulation of p21(WAF1/CIP1) mediated C6 apoptosis via overactivation of CDK2. In addition, confocal microscopy showed that p21(WAF1/CIP1) totally translocated to nucleolus during M1-induced C6 apoptosis. Altogether, downregulation and nucleolar translocation of the p21(WAF1/CIP1) protein played an active role in M1-induced C6 apoptosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alphavirus / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology
  • Apoptosis
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cyclin A / metabolism
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 / metabolism
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism*
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / physiology
  • Down-Regulation
  • Glioma / enzymology
  • Glioma / genetics
  • Glioma / metabolism*
  • Phosphorylation
  • Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism
  • Purines / pharmacology
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Roscovitine
  • S Phase


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Cyclin A
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
  • Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen
  • Purines
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Roscovitine
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2