Five beam holographic lithography for simultaneous fabrication of three dimensional photonic crystal templates and line defects using phase tunable diffractive optical element

Opt Express. 2009 Sep 14;17(19):16625-31. doi: 10.1364/OE.17.016625.


This paper demonstrates an approach for laser holographic patterning of three-dimensional photonic lattice structures using a single diffractive optical element. The diffractive optical element is fabricated by recording gratings in a photosensitive polymer using a two-beam interference method and has four diffraction gratings oriented with four-fold symmetry around a central opening. Four first-order diffracted beams from the gratings and one non-diffracted central beam overlap and form a three-dimensional interference pattern. The phase of one side beam is delayed by inserting a thin piece of microscope glass slide into the beam. By rotating the glass slide, thus tuning the phase of the side beam, the five beam interference pattern changes from face-center tetragonal symmetry into diamond-like lattice symmetry with an optimal bandgap. Three-dimensional photonic crystal templates are produced in a photoresist and show the phase tuning effect for bandgap optimization. Furthermore, by integrating an amplitude mask in the central opening, line defects are produced within the photonic crystal template. This paper presents the first experimental demonstration on the holographic fabrication approach of three-dimensional photonic crystal templates with functional defects by a single laser exposure using a single optical element.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.