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Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome Diversity and Its Relationship With Nearby Regions


Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome Diversity and Its Relationship With Nearby Regions

Khaled K Abu-Amero et al. BMC Genet.


Background: Human origins and migration models proposing the Horn of Africa as a prehistoric exit route to Asia have stimulated molecular genetic studies in the region using uniparental loci. However, from a Y-chromosome perspective, Saudi Arabia, the largest country of the region, has not yet been surveyed. To address this gap, a sample of 157 Saudi males was analyzed at high resolution using 67 Y-chromosome binary markers. In addition, haplotypic diversity for its most prominent J1-M267 lineage was estimated using a set of 17 Y-specific STR loci.

Results: Saudi Arabia differentiates from other Arabian Peninsula countries by a higher presence of J2-M172 lineages. It is significantly different from Yemen mainly due to a comparative reduction of sub-Saharan Africa E1-M123 and Levantine J1-M267 male lineages. Around 14% of the Saudi Arabia Y-chromosome pool is typical of African biogeographic ancestry, 17% arrived to the area from the East across Iran, while the remainder 69% could be considered of direct or indirect Levantine ascription. Interestingly, basal E-M96* (n = 2) and J-M304* (n = 3) lineages have been detected, for the first time, in the Arabian Peninsula. Coalescence time for the most prominent J1-M267 haplogroup in Saudi Arabia (11.6 +/- 1.9 ky) is similar to that obtained previously for Yemen (11.3 +/- 2) but significantly older that those estimated for Qatar (7.3 +/- 1.8) and UAE (6.8 +/- 1.5).

Conclusion: The Y-chromosome genetic structure of the Arabian Peninsula seems to be mainly modulated by geography. The data confirm that this area has mainly been a recipient of gene flow from its African and Asian surrounding areas, probably mainly since the last Glacial maximum onwards. Although rare deep rooting lineages for Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J have been detected, the presence of more basal clades supportive of the southern exit route of modern humans to Eurasian, were not found.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Bidimensional plots based on Y-chromosome haplogroup frequency data in the Arabian Peninsula and adjacent populations. [A] MDS analysis (stress value = 0.265); [B] PC analysis. Abbreviations: ANA, Anatolia; EGY, Egypt; IRN, Iran; IRQ, Iraq; JOR, Jordan; LEB, Lebanon; OMA, Oman; PAK, Pakistan; QAT, Qatar; SAR, Saudi Arabia; SOM, Somalia; UAE, United Arab Emirates; YEM, Yemen.

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