The concept of minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty surgery evolved to reduce quadriceps muscle strength loss and improve clinical outcome following total knee replacement. We performed a systematic review of the published literature on Minimally Invasive Total Knee Arthroplasty (MITKA) and analyzed the reported surgical outcomes. Twenty-eight studies published from January 2003 to June 2008 that met the inclusion criteria were evaluated using the modified Coleman Methodology Score (CMS). At a mean CMS of 60, most studies reporting on outcome of MITKA are of moderate scientific quality. Patients undergoing MITKA tend to have decreased postoperative pain, rapid recovery of quadriceps function, reduced blood loss, improved range of motion (mostly reported as a short-term gain) and shorter hospital stay compared with patients undergoing standard total knee arthroplasty. These benefits, however, need to be balanced against the incidence of increased tourniquet time and increased incidence of component malalignment in the MITKA group. So far, the evidence based knowledge regarding results of MITKA comes from prospective studies of moderate quality with short follow up periods. Multicenter studies with longer follow-ups are needed to justify the long-term advantages of MITKA over standard total knee arthroplasty.