Controversies in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated renal diseases

Nat Rev Nephrol. 2009 Oct;5(10):574-81. doi: 10.1038/nrneph.2009.139.


The two most common HIV-associated renal diseases, HIV-associated nephropathy and HIV immune-complex kidney disease, share the common pathologic finding of hyperplasia within the glomerulus. Podocyte injury is central to the pathogenesis of these diseases; however, the source of the proliferating glomerular epithelial cell remains a topic of debate. Parenchymal injury has been linked to direct infection of renal epithelial cells by HIV-1, although the mechanism of viral entry into this non-lymphoid compartment is unclear. Although transgenic rodent models have provided insight into viral proteins responsible for inducing renal disease, such models have substantial limitations. Rodent HIV-1 models, for instance, cannot replicate all features of immune activation, a process that could have an important role in the pathogenesis of the HIV-associated renal diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • Humans
  • Kidney Diseases / etiology*
  • Kidney Diseases / immunology
  • Mice
  • Podocytes / pathology
  • Rats