Raman signatures of the carotenoid component are studied in individual pollen grains from different species of trees. The information is obtained as differences in the strong pre-resonant Raman spectra measured before and after photodepletion of the carotenoid molecules. The results provide the first in situ evidence of interspecies differences in pollen carotenoid content, structure, and/or assembly between plant species without prior purification. The analysis of carotenoids in situ is confirmed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC)-supported resonance Raman data measured directly on the HPTLC plates after separation of carotenoids in pollen extracts. Utilization of the in situ, extraction-free procedure in carotenoid analysis will improve sensitivity and structural selectivity and provides insight into carotenoid structure and composition in single pollen grains.