The Long Beach/Fort Lauderdale Relative Risk Study

J Safety Res. 2009;40(4):285-92. doi: 10.1016/j.jsr.2009.07.002. Epub 2009 Aug 4.


Problem: The role of alcohol as a major factor in traffic crash causation has been firmly established. However, controversy remains as to the precise shape of the relative risk function and the BAC at which crash risk begins to increase.

Methods: This study used a case-control design in two locations: Long Beach, California, and Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Data were collected on 2,871 crashes of all severities and a matched control group of drivers selected from the same time, location, and direction of travel as the crash drivers. Of the 14,985 sample drivers, 81.3% of the crash drivers and 97.9% of the controls provided a valid BAC specimen.

Results: When adjusted for covariates and nonparticipation bias, increases in relative risk were observed at BACs of .04-.05, and the elevations in risk became very pronounced when BACs exceeded .10.

Discussion: The results provide strong support for .08 per se laws and for state policies that increase sanctions for BACs in excess of .15.

Impact on industry: This study provides further precision on the deleterious effects of alcohol on driving and, by implication, on other complex tasks.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Accidents, Traffic / legislation & jurisprudence
  • Accidents, Traffic / prevention & control*
  • Accidents, Traffic / statistics & numerical data
  • Alcoholic Intoxication / blood
  • Alcoholic Intoxication / diagnosis*
  • Automobile Driving*
  • Breath Tests
  • California / epidemiology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Ethanol / blood*
  • Florida / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Risk


  • Ethanol