Intramuscular Matrix-M-adjuvanted virosomal H5N1 vaccine induces high frequencies of multifunctional Th1 CD4+ cells and strong antibody responses in mice

Vaccine. 2009 Dec 9;27(52):7367-76. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.09.044. Epub 2009 Sep 23.


Ideally, a candidate pandemic influenza vaccine should elicit rapid and strong cell-mediated and humoral immune responses, which are long-lasting and exhibit broad cross-reactivity against drifted strains. The present study investigated the detailed humoral and cellular immune responses in mice vaccinated intranasally or intramuscularly with inactivated influenza H5N1 (NIBRG-14) virosomal vaccine alone or formulated with Matrix-M adjuvant. The intramuscular Matrix-M-adjuvanted vaccine induced a strong immediate and long-term humoral immune response with high cross-reactivity against drifted H5N1 viruses and showed a dose-sparing potential. Additionally, the vaccine induced a balanced Th1/Th2 cytokine profile and most importantly high frequencies of multifunctional Th1 CD4(+) cells. Our results highlight that Matrix-M adjuvant is a promising parenteral adjuvant for formulating pandemic candidate vaccines.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / pharmacology*
  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • Antibody Formation*
  • Cross Reactions
  • Female
  • Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests
  • Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype / immunology*
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Injections, Intramuscular
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / prevention & control*
  • Spleen / cytology
  • Spleen / immunology
  • Th1 Cells / immunology*
  • Virosomes / immunology


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Virosomes