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. 2010 Jan 25;626(2-3):139-45.
doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.09.040. Epub 2009 Sep 24.

Inhibition of P-glycoprotein Activity by Limonin and Other Secondary Metabolites From Citrus Species in Human Colon and Leukaemia Cell Lines

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Inhibition of P-glycoprotein Activity by Limonin and Other Secondary Metabolites From Citrus Species in Human Colon and Leukaemia Cell Lines

Mahmoud Zaki El-Readi et al. Eur J Pharmacol. .

Abstract

P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a membrane transporter encoded by the MDR1 gene in human cells, mediates drug efflux from cells and plays a major role in causing multidrug resistance; which is one of the most accepted mechanisms for failure of chemotherapy in cancer treatment. In this study, we investigated the effects of nine naturally occurring compounds isolated from Citrus jambhiri Lush and Citrus pyriformis Hassk (Rutaceae) for their potential to modulate the activity of P-gp in the multidrug-resistant human leukaemia cell line CEM/ADR5000. Limonin, deacetylnomilin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, stigmasterol and ss-sitosterol-O-glucoside inhibited the efflux of the P-gp substrate rhodamine 123 in a concentration-dependent manner. Some of these compounds were more active than verapamil, which was used as a positive control. Treatment of drug-resistant Caco-2 cells with the most active C. jambhiri and C. pyriformis compounds increased their sensitivity to doxorubicin and completely reversed doxorubicin resistance, which agrees with a decreased P-gp activity. Limonin was the most potent P-glycoprotein inhibitor - when it was applied at a non-toxic concentration of 20 microM, it significantly enhanced doxorubicin cytotoxicity 2.98-fold (P<0.001) and 2.2-fold (P<0.001) in Caco2 and CEM/ADR5000 cells, respectively. These isolated Citrus compounds could be considered as good candidates for the development of novel P-gp/MDR1 reversal agents which may enhance the accumulation and efficacy of chemotherapy agents.

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