Psyllium as a substitute for gluten in bread

J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Oct;109(10):1781-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2009.07.032.


Celiac disease is an antibody-mediated enteropathy that presents permanent intolerance to ingested gluten. Currently, only one kind of treatment is available: the complete dietary elimination of all sources of gluten. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of replacing gluten with psyllium on sensory characteristics of bread dough and to compare the chemical, nutritional, technological, and sensory characteristics of the modified preparations. This study is experimental and was subdivided into five steps: selection and development of preparation, chemical analysis, sensory analysis, and statistical analysis. Modified samples of the bread dough achieved a 93.0% acceptance rate for individuals with celiac disease and up to 97.0% for individuals without celiac disease. The most affected characteristics were odor and texture. In terms of chemical composition of the bread dough, energy was reduced by 32.1% and the fat fraction was 42.3% before being cooked. Data obtained from sensory analysis of psyllium doughs indicate that the products had good acceptance by individuals with celiac disease as well as by individuals without celiac disease. This suggests that psyllium can replace gluten in preparations. Furthermore, in terms of chemical composition, products made with modified dough had less fat and fewer calories.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Bread* / analysis
  • Celiac Disease / diet therapy*
  • Child
  • Diet, Gluten-Free*
  • Emulsifying Agents / administration & dosage
  • Fat Substitutes / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • Food Preferences
  • Food Technology*
  • Glutens / administration & dosage
  • Glutens / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutritive Value
  • Odorants
  • Patient Satisfaction
  • Psyllium / administration & dosage*
  • Taste
  • Young Adult


  • Emulsifying Agents
  • Fat Substitutes
  • Glutens
  • Psyllium