Cardiopulmonary bypass has revolutionized the ability to provide cardiorespiratory support and has advanced the field of cardiac surgery. This invention has given surgeons the ability to perform many procedures that were not possible previously. The concept and development of cardiopulmonary bypass has been pioneered by numerous legendary surgeons. Cardiopulmonary bypass, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and left heart bypass have revolutionized our ability to operate on the heart, great vessels, and aorta in addition to providing means of short-term support for reversible causes of cardiac and/or respiratory failure. The success of these approaches is dependent upon excellent communication between the surgeon, perfusionist, and anesthesiologist as well as constant vigilance and troubleshooting by the caregivers.