Synthesis and evaluation of novel alpha-heteroaryl-phenylpropanoic acid derivatives as PPARalpha/gamma dual agonists

Bioorg Med Chem. 2009 Oct 15;17(20):7113-25. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2009.09.001. Epub 2009 Sep 6.


The synthesis of a new series of phenylpropanoic acid derivatives incorporating an heteroaryl group at the alpha-position and their evaluation for binding and activation of PPARalpha and PPARgamma are presented in this report. Among the new compounds, (S)-3-{4-[3-(5-methyl-2-phenyl-oxazol-4-yl)-propyl]-phenyl}-2-1,2,3-triazol-2-yl-propionic acid (17j), was identified as a potent human PPARalpha/gamma dual agonist (EC(50)=0.013 and 0.061 microM, respectively) with demonstrated oral bioavailability in rat and dog. 17j was shown to decrease insulin levels, plasma glucose, and triglycerides in the ZDF female rat model. In the human apolipoprotein A-1/CETP transgenic mouse model 17j produced increases in hApoA1 and HDL-C and decreases in plasma triglycerides. The increased potency for binding and activation of both PPAR subtypes observed with 17j when compared to previous analogs in this series was explained based on results derived from crystallographic and modeling studies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Availability
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Crystallography, X-Ray
  • Dogs
  • Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
  • Female
  • Insulin / blood
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • PPAR alpha / agonists*
  • PPAR gamma / agonists*
  • Propionates / chemical synthesis*
  • Propionates / pharmacokinetics
  • Propionates / pharmacology*
  • Rats
  • Triglycerides / blood


  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin
  • PPAR alpha
  • PPAR gamma
  • Propionates
  • Triglycerides