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Review
. 2009 Sep 1;14(9):3286-312.
doi: 10.3390/molecules14093286.

Squalene Emulsions for Parenteral Vaccine and Drug Delivery

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Free PMC article
Review

Squalene Emulsions for Parenteral Vaccine and Drug Delivery

Christopher B Fox. Molecules. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Squalene is a linear triterpene that is extensively utilized as a principal component of parenteral emulsions for drug and vaccine delivery. In this review, the chemical structure and sources of squalene are presented. Moreover, the physicochemical and biological properties of squalene-containing emulsions are evaluated in the context of parenteral formulations. Historical and current parenteral emulsion products containing squalene or squalane are discussed. The safety of squalene-based products is also addressed. Finally, analytical techniques for characterization of squalene emulsions are examined.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Chemical structure of squalene.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Schematic of oil droplet emulsified by various surfactants in aqueous bulk phase. Figure taken with permission from reference [76].
Figure 3
Figure 3
Fluorescently-labeled MF59® three hours after injection has not been taken up by cells (left). At 48 hours after injection, MF59® is intracellular (middle). Images taken with permission from reference [65].
Figure 4
Figure 4
HPLC analysis with charged aerosol detection of squalene and impurities from shark or olive sources. Figure taken with permission from reference [76].
Figure 5
Figure 5
In vitro gene activity in the absence (open bar) and presence (closed bar) of serum as measured by β-galactoxidase activity. Figure taken with permission from reference [3].
Figure 6
Figure 6
Cryo-EM image of triglyceride oil emulsion showing oil droplets (shaded) and liposomes (clear). Scale bar is 200 nm. Figure taken with permission from reference [159].

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